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Before that time, the individual organism was studied as a whole in a field known as Population biology deals with groups or populations of organisms that inhabit a given area or region.Included at that level are studies of the roles that specific kinds of plants and animals play in the complex and self-perpetuating interrelationships that exist between the living and the nonliving world, as well as studies of the built-in controls that maintain those relationships naturally.Furthermore, the mechanisms for that transmittal follow a pattern that is the same in all organisms.Whenever a change in a gene (a survival of the fittest” was the basis for organic evolution (the change of living things with time).

Long after Darwin assumed that variations existed, biologists discovered that they are caused by a change in the genetic material (DNA).

Biology is often approached on the basis of levels that deal with fundamental units of life.

At the level of molecular biology, for example, life is regarded as a manifestation of chemical and energy transformations that occur among the many chemical constituents that compose an organism.

The modern tendency toward cross-disciplinary research and the unification of scientific knowledge and investigation from different fields has resulted in significant overlap of the field of biology with other scientific disciplines.

Modern principles of other fields—chemistry, medicine, and physics, for example—are integrated with those of biology in areas such as biochemistry, biomedicine, and biophysics.

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