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Extensive walled sites and settlements have recently been found in Zilum, Chad.The area is located approximately 60 km (37 mi) southwest of Lake Chad, and has been radiocarbon dated to the first millennium BCE.Rival kingship factions which split from the Luba Kingdom later moved among the Lunda people, marrying into its elite and laying the foundation of the Lunda Empire in the 16th century.The ruling dynasty centralised authority among the Lunda under the Mwata Yamyo or Mwaant Yaav.The Mwata Yamyo's legitimacy, like that of the Luba king, came from being viewed as a spiritual religious guardian.
The kingdom controlled agriculture and regional trade of salt and iron from the north and copper from the Zambian/Congo copper belt.
Southern Africa has a transition to semi-tropical or temperate climates (green), and more desert or semi-arid regions, centered on Namibia and Botswana.
According to paleontology, early hominid skull anatomy was similar to that of their close cousins, the great African forest apes, gorilla and chimpanzee, but they had adopted a bipedal locomotion and freed hands, giving them a crucial advantage enabling them to live in both forested areas and on the open savanna at a time when Africa was drying up, with savanna encroaching on forested areas. By 3 million years ago several australopithecine hominid species had developed throughout southern, eastern and central Africa.
African pluvial periods are associated with a "wet Sahara" phase during which larger lakes and more rivers existed.
The use of the term has been criticized because it refers to the South only by cartography conventions and projects a connotation of inferiority; a vestige of colonialism, which some say, divided Africa into European terms of homogeneity.